INCA 283 History of Aboriginal Media in Canada

Indian Communication Arts (INCA)

Monday, April 14 (Exam)



Final Examination – Study Guidelines


Essay Question:

  • Why did the Inuit leaders want to be involved in television production? Discuss the development of the Inukshuk project in 1978, including the reasons it was set up, what it hoped to accomplish and how it set the stage for the development of Aboriginal broadcasting in Canada.

Questions from Students’ Presentations

CBC North – where is it located (Montreal)

Where and when is the WITBN conference? (June 18-23 Winnipeg)

Who is Maurice Switzer? Editor and Dir of Communication, Anishnabek News and the Union of Ontario Indians

Where is Urban Native Magazine based and whois the editor Lisa CharleyBoy and Toronto

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What did you learn about journalism from the INCA 2013 Summer Institute video project, INCA Inspired. Click to watch


INCA Inspired All in Final June 22 from INCA Online on Vimeo.



Describe MBC Radio for someone who has never listened to it. Summarize its history, development and challenges. Answer the question: Who listens to MBC Radio and why?


KANATA 14 \ WITBC Conference in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, June 19-23


What new magazine sponsored a condom decorating contest for its LGBT issue?






Why are these dates significant for understanding the history of Aboriginal media

a)     1828 – Cherokee Phoenix – first Native publication published by Natives

b)     1885-6 The Indian first in Canada

c)     1960 – The Indian Outlook – FSI – province partnership

d)     1964 – Pond Inlet radio (see Lorna’s book) NWT – first illegal radio station, got CRTC approval after

e)     1969 – The New Breed – publisher PhD Howard Adams – Metis radical

f)      1970 – The Saskatchewan Indian – Doug Cuthand

g)     1972 – Anik – communicaton satellite, first for Canada, made broadcasting in the north

h)     1973 – NCP Native Communications Program – trail radio and region newspapers – 15

i)      1974 – Accelerated Coverage Plan – CBC responsible for getting satellits into every community in Canada with at least 500 people; no programming money, Canadian and American

j)      1978 – Inukshuk Project – Pilot program that gave Inuit prodcers a chance to produce a television show

k)      1982 – Constitution Act

l)      1983 – NNBAP – Northern Native Broadcasting Access Program – funded radio and television production, north of the Hamelin Line

m)   1983 – MBC Radio established in Saskatchewan

n)     1990 – NCP dismantled – all govt funding for native ppers gone

o)     1991 – New Broadcasting Act – replaced act 1958 and added a requirement to Aboriginal broadcasting

p)     1992 – TVNC established – Television Northern Canada

q)     1995 – Saskatchewan Sage established

r)      1999 – APTN established first Aboriginal network for north

s)      2005 – APTN License renewal

t)      2010 – APTN broadcast Olympics in Aboriginal language


Short Answer Questions:

What is the Hamelin Line and why is it important? (2 marks)

What is the CRTC, what does it do and why is it important? (3 marks)
True/False (17 marks)

Key dates for APTN


1983 NNBAP

1991 Broadcast act

1992 TVNC

1999 APTN

2013 renewed for five years until 2018


How is APTN financed? Cable companies have to put in in first tier package, charge cable subscriber .25 cents/months – paid to APTN

1. The first Indian newspaper published in Canada, which was called The Indian, was published in 1850.

  •  True
  • False


2. The partners that published the Indian Outlook in the early 1960s were the Federation of Saskatchewan Indians and the Federal government.

q  True

q  False


3. AMMSA is the largest Aboriginal publisher in Canada.

q  True

q  False


4. Missinipi Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) has been awarded a license to broadcast in Regina on 90.3 FM.

q  True

q  False


5. The inaugural broadcast of APTN was aired on September 1, 1992

q  True

q  False


6. The Canadian Broadcasting Act (1991) enshrines multicultural/multiracial and Aboriginal broadcasting.

q  True

q  False



7. Michelle Hugli is the first editor of Shout magazine.

q  True

q  False



8. The Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations was the original publisher of the Saskatchewan Indian magazine/newspaper.

q  True

q  False


9. The myth of the empty land was vital to attracting settlers, particularly to western Canada.

q  True

q  False


10. A narrative has a cause and effect, for example: The Queen cried because the King died.

q  True

q  False


11. Sequoyah (also called George Gist), a Cherokee, developed a phonetic writing system for his people.

q  True

q  False


12. Inuit leaders, starting in the late 1960s, were responsible for lobbying the federal government for programs to support Aboriginal participation in Canadian broadcasting.

q  True

q  False


13. Doug Cuthand was the first host of CTV’s Indigenous Circle.

q  True

q  False


14. The Unjust Society was written as a response to Pierre Trudeau’s ideal of Canada as a “just society” and Jean Chretien’s White Paper.

q  True

q  False


15. The development of satellite technology was necessary for the emergence of Aboriginal broadcasting.

q  True

q  False


16. Global TV is a public broadcaster.

q  True

q  False


17. Marshall McLuhan (quoted at the beginning of Magic in the Sky) said that the medium of communication is as important as the message.

q  True

q  False



Multiple Choice (17 marks)


1. Every broadcaster in Canada applies to which organization for a license?

a)   Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission

b)   Northern Native Broadcast Access Program.

c)   Department of Communications

d)   Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

e)   Department of the Secretary of State


2. The first Indian newspaper published in the US, the Cherokee Phoenix, was published starting in what year?

a)    1828

b)    1928

c)    1908

d)    1867

e)    1776


3.   The Native Communications Program (NCP) was cancelled in 1990, which was also the year of

a)    Budget cuts

b)    Northern broadcasting

c)    Literacy

d)    Women

e)    Minority journalism


4. APTN gets the bulk of its revenue from

a)   Cable companies

b)   CRTC

c)   Advertisers

d)   Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

e)   TVNC


5. The first Canadian telecommunications satellite was called?

a)   Sputnik

b)   Anik

c)   Brother

d)   TNI

e)   DSOS


6. Television Northern Canada (TVNC) was established in 1991/2 to deal with the issue of

a)   Lack of funding

b)   problems with distribution

c)   lack of training for journalists

d)   availability of new technology

e)   too much American programming


7. The Saskatchewan Indian is currently published by

a)   Aboriginal Multimedia Society of Alberta

b)   Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations

c)   Saskatchewan Indian Media Corporation

d)   First Nations and Metis Relations


8. The publisher of Eagle Feather News is

a)   Doug Cuthand

b)   John Lagimodiere

c)   Chris Ross

d)   Ron Merasty


The publisher of RezX is

a)   Doug Cuthand

b)   John Lagimodiere

c)   Chris Ross

d)   Ron Merasty



9. The Inukshuk project gave Inuit the opportunity to

a)   go to New York

b)   show that they were capable of producing television programming

c)   broadcast in their Inuktitut language

d)   preserve and reinforce their culture

e)   All of the above


10. The CBC’s Accelerated coverage project was designed to help them get Canadian television programming in to every home in Canada with at least

a)   500 people

b)   200 people

c)   a satellite receiver dish

d)   a mayor and council

e)   a movie theatre


11. The author of Prison of Grass is

a)   Doug Cuthand

b)   Maria Campbell

c)   Daniel Francis

d)   Howard Adams

e)   a movie theatre



12. Which of the following is not an AMMSA newspaper?

a)   Saskatchewan Sage

b)   Alberta Sweetgrass

c)   Eagle Feather News

d)   Windspeaker

e)   Raven’s Eye


13. The Native Communications Program (NCP), which funded native newspapers and trail radio, was established in

a)   1974

b)   1970

c)   1990

d)   1983


14. The NCP was terminated in

a)   1974

b)   1970

c)   1990

d)   1983


15. The Native Voice was published in which province?

a)   Saskatchewan

b)   Ontario

c)   British Columbia

d)   Manitoba


16. NNBAP is the acronym for

a)   Northern Native Broadcast Access Program

b)   National Native Broadcast Acts and Policies

c)   Natives of the North Broadcast Acting Program



17. CBC Television is not a purely public broadcaster because it has

a)   Interns

b)   Commercials

c)   Public Service Announcements

d)   American programming

e)   Political announcements


Short answer questions (25 marks)


1. When was the first issue of New Breed published and who was the original publisher/editor? (2)




2. What policy document released in 1969 by the Government of Canada caused Indian people to rise up against assimilation? (1)





3. What is the program that funded Aboriginal newspapers and some trail radio and low-powered FM radio starting in 1974? (1)



4. Name five Aboriginal newspapers that were funded under the Native Communications Program? (5)










5. Give an example of a public broadcaster. (1)




6. Give an example of a private broadcaster. (1)



7. What is the name of the program that funded northern broadcasting starting in 1983? (1)









6. What newspapers does AMMSA publish? (4)




7. What is the biggest Aboriginal radio broadcaster in Saskatchewan? Where is it based? What is the name of its CEO? (3)

8. What is the CRTC and why is it important in Canadian broadcasting? (2)

9. In what year did the modern era of Aboriginal mass media start? Justify your answer by identifying key events in that year. (4)







10. What is the name of the department that funded the NCP and continues for fund the NNBAP? (bonus mark if you know the old name of the department and the new name) (2)



What were some of the points made and what was the overall conclusion reached by Carmen Robertson and Mark Anderson in Seeing Red?


What did Danielle Audet teach you about APTN? (10 marks)




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Shannon Avison

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Monday 10 - 2
Tuesdays-Fridays by appointment

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